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Explore how cancer development is regulated through 2 cell signaling pathways, download your free pathway maps today!
August 9, 2017
Cancer Research Pathways
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for FREE on our website now! Our pathways are organized into popular research areas such as immunology, neuroscience, and cancer. The following 2 pathways are important for cancer research studies...
Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin
Stathmin, also known as metablastin and oncoprotein 18, is a protein that is encoded by the STMN1 gene. It is essential for the regulation of the cell cytoskeleton, which is required for numerous cell processes including regulating the cell cycle, cytoplasmic organization, cell division and cell motility. Stathmin is the key to regulating rapid microtubule remodeling of the cytoskeleton in response to the cell’s needs. Microtubules are polymers of α,β-tubulin, and their assembly is partly determined by the concentration of free tubulin in the cytoplasm. At low concentrations of free tubulin, the growth rate at the microtubule ends is slowed and this results in an increased rate of microtubule depolymerization (disassembly). Stathmin (aka op18) can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation when mutated. If stathmin (aka op18) is mutated and is unable to bind tubulin, it results in constant mitotic spindle assembly. Without regulation, we have what is called cancer.
WNT Signaling Pathway
The WNT signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways which are activated by binding a WNT-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor. Three WNT signaling pathways have been identified: the canonical WNT pathway, the noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway, and the noncanonical WNT/calcium pathway. WNT signaling has been identified for its role in carcinogenesis, in maintaining stem cells, and its function in embryonic development. The canonical WNT pathway leads to regulation of gene transcription. The noncanonical planar cell polarity pathway regulates the cell cytoskeleton, and the noncanonical Wnt/calcium pathway regulates calcium inside the cell. WNT pathway mutations, especially in WNT, APC, axin and TCF, are commonly observed in breast and prostate cancers. Mutations in this pathway can also lead to numerous other diseases including glioblastoma, type II diabetes and more.